Windrow composting is a way of generating compost by piling organic matter into extended rows or elongated pyramid-like piles. The piles are turned over by large machinery to preserve even levels of heat, humidity, and oxygen content. Piles will usually range from four to eight feet tall and 14-16 feet in length.
In windrow composting, ground-up garden refuse is formed into long, open-air piles. The piles are turned frequently to introduce oxygen into the pile, and ensure that adequate moisture is present throughout the pile.
Normally windrow systems take about 6 to 12 weeks to make finished compost. The pile is agitated at regular intervals of 1 to 3 times per week to introduce oxygen and water to enhance the composting process.
It is estimated that the unenclosed facilities (unenclosed ASP and windrow composting) will have a unit costs ranging from $38 to $435 per wet ton of biosolids processed. For enclosed composting (enclosed ASP or in-vessel) the cost would be in the range of $55 to $65 per wet ton.
Special vehicles are required to agitate the windrows periodically by turning them upside down, which introduces oxygen and facilitates aerobic decomposition in the windrow.
Odors and other emissions are likely to be a major consideration when evaluating potential environmental impacts of a composting operation, especially an open air windrow. Open-air composting alternatives (unenclosed ASP and windrow composting) have a larger element of risk.
A waste incineration plant is an important facility for public health as it involves protects the environment in a number of ways. Unless the waste materials are properly disposed by the waste incinerator plant, it may be a serious hazard for the community. The main type of waste incinerator plant used around the world is […]
Commercial composting is the composting which carried out principally as a method of waste disposal which diverts this organic waste away from landfill. In the feedstock is green waste, or another “MSW residual waste” free organic material these facilities can produce a high quality compost used for garden and horticultural applications. In the developed nations […]
Progressive cities and many urban centers around the world are now installing large-scale in-vessel composting systems as part of their total MSW management. Large scale in-vessel composting, which makes high quality compost through the use of enclosed “reactors” that closely monitor temperature and oxygen levels throughout the biodegradation of organic materials, is popular. In-vessel composting […]
Autoclaving is defined as a form of Mechanical Heat Treatment (MHT) which takes place as a batch process and comprises steam processing of residual MSW, in a vessel under the action of pressure. This is contrasted with other MHT waste treatment technologies which are continuous and don’t involve pressurization. Autoclave and Steam Plant – Estech […]